A simple and practical clinical classification for the etiology of intracerebral hemorrhage from Helsinki University Central Hospital.
SMASH U stands for:
- (S) structural vascular lesions – including cavernomas and AVMs – 5%
- (M) medication – 14%
- (A) amyloid angiopathy – 20%
- (S) systemic disease (liver cirrhosis, thrombocytopenia, others) – 5%
- (H) hypertension – 35%
- (U) undetermined – 21%
*patients with structural lesions have smallest hemorrhages and best prognosis; anticoagulation-related ICH were largest and most often fatal.
Stroke. 2012 Oct;43(10):2592-7. Epub 2012 Aug 2. SMASH-U: a proposal for etiologic classification of intracerebral hemorrhage. Meretoja A., et al.