Checklist: Predictors of DCI

  • SAH Blood clot:  Volume, location, persistence over time and density
  • Poor clinical condition on admission and loss of consciousness at ictus
  • smoking (strong)
  • diabetes (mod)
  • systemic inflammatory response syndrome (mod)
  • hyperglycaemia (mod)
  • hydrocephalus (mod)
  • hex?
  • history of hypertension?
  • age (inconsistent)

CSF molecules that are possible markers of DCI

  • endothelin-1
  • IL-6
  • some markers of thrombin activation

Serum biomarkers (association, but not validated)

  • TNF
  • IL-6
  • S100β
  • ubiquitin C-terminal hydroxylase 1
  • phosphorylated axonal neurofilament heavy chain
  • matrix metalloproteinases
  • von Willebrand factor
  • endothelin-1
  • vascular endothelial growth factor
  • selectins
  • adhesion molecules



Macdonald, R. Loch. “Delayed Neurological Deterioration After Subarachnoid Haemorrhage”. Nature Reviews Neurology 10.1 (2013): 44-58.


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