Semantic Paraphasia

meaning of the word is related to that of the intended word

6 different types:


  • Coordinate semantic paraphasias  – same category (tiger for lion)
  • Associate semantic paraphasias – related but not the same category (shoe for foot)
  • Superordinate semantic paraphasias – replaces specific with generalized (fruit for pear)
  • Subordinate semantic paraphasias – replace target word with one that is more specific (rose for flower)
  • Part-whole semantic paraphasias – replace the whole with the part (finger for hand) or part with the whole (leg for foot)
  • Visual semantic paraphasia – replace word with another word that shares same visual features (knife for nail)



Restricted diffusion in occipital lobe with extension to left pulvinar nucleus, with ADC correlation.The typical symptoms of thalamic aphasia consist of fluent output, semantic paraphasias, impairment of comprehension, and normal repetition.



Bruzzone, M. et al “Teaching Neuroimages: Aphasia after infarction of the left pulvinar nucleus.  Neurology 2016 August 23, 87 (8): e82.



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