Oxygen Supplementation


  1. Nasal Cannula
  • delivers O2 at rate of 2-6 L/min
  • concentration 24%-44%

1 L/min – 24%
2 L/min – 28%
4 L/min – 36%
6 L/min – 44%

2. oxygen mask

  • 3 basic styles:
    1. simple mask – small vents on each site, delivesr up to 50% O2, entrainment of room air makes actual FiO2 variable
    2. non-rebreathing mask – flutter valves on each, prevents etnrainment, reservoir bag holds supply of 100% O2, delivers maximum O2 conc of 90%
    3. venturi mask – delivers fixed amounts of supplemental O2 (24%-40%)


3. Bag-valve mask or “Ambu-Bag”

  • self-inflating resuscitation bag
  • manually delivers positive pressure ventilation
  • with flow rate of 10-15 L/min, FiO2 90% delivered
  • must fit snugly to prevent air leaks
  • may have one-way expiratory valves (prevent entry of room air) –> delivery of greater than 90% oxygen to ventilated and spontaneously breathing patients
  • without expiratory valves – delivers high concentration of oxygen during positive pressure ventilation but only 30% oxygen during spontaneous breaths
  • self-inflating bags have “pop-off” valves which must be closed tightly to achieve positive pressure ventilation


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