TIA Management

Low-risk TIA

  • ABCD scores 0-3
  • out patient work-up in the next 1-2 days
  • alternative is to admit
  • begin ASA 81mg or plavix 75 or ASA 25/ER dipyridamole 200mg BID
  • perform carotid imaging: US, CTA, MRA
  • consider TTE (if bilateral infarcts on CT, high suspicion of cardioembolic source and TTE normal – obtain TEE)
  • consider 30d ambulatory cardiac monitor to document cryptogenic Afib
  • smoking cessation
  • Statins:
    • start high-dose statin (atorvastatin 40-80; rosuvastatin 20-40)
    • consider mod intensity statin if >75 y/o (atorvastatin 10-20, rosuvastatin 5-10, simvastatin 20-40, pravastatin 40-80)
  • consider anticoagulation if ECG (+) Afib, calculate CHADS or CHADSVASC and HAS-BLED scores
  • ? Referral to vascular neurologist or cardiologist

 

High-Risk TIA:

  • admit
  • permissive HTN
  • gradually lower BP limits over 24-48h

 

 

Reference:

Gross, H. and Grose, N. (2017). Emergency Neurological Life Support: Acute Ischemic Stroke. Neurocritical Care, 27(S1), pp.102-115.

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Criteria for Thrombectomy / Endovascular Treatment of Stroke

Patients eligible for intravenous alteplase should receive intravenous alteplase even if endovascular treatments are being considered

Patients should receive endovascular therapy with a stent retriever if they meet all the following criteria:

  1. prestroke mRS score 0–1,
  2. acute ischemic stroke receiving intravenous alteplase within 4.5 h of onset
  3. causative occlusion of the internal carotid artery or proximal MCA (M1),
  4. age >18 years, (note: there is no upper age limit),
  5. NIHSS score of C6,
  6. ASPECTS of C6
  7. treatment can be initiated (groin puncture) within 6 h of symptom onset

As with intravenous alteplase, reduced time from symptom onset to reperfusion with endovascular therapies is highly associated with better clinical outcomes

When treatment is initiated beyond 6 h from symptom onset, the effectiveness of endovascular therapy is uncertain for patients with acute ischemic stroke who havecausative occlusion of the internal carotid artery or proximal MCA (M1)

In carefully selected patients with anterior circulation occlusion who have contraindications to intravenous alteplase, endovascular therapy with stent retrievers completed within 6 h of stroke onset is reasonable

Although the benefits are uncertain, use of endovascular therapy with stent retrievers may be reasonable for carefully selected patients with acute ischemic stroke in whom treatment can be initiated (groin puncture) within 6 h of symptom onset and who have causative occlusion of the M2 or M3 portion of the MCAs, anterior cerebral arteries, vertebral arteries, basilar artery, or posterior cerebral arteries

Endovascular therapy with stent retrievers may be reasonable for some patients <18 years of age with acute ischemic stroke who have demonstrated large vessel occlusion in whom treatment can be initiated (groin puncture) within 6 h of symptom onset, but the benefits are not established in this age group

Observing patients after intravenous alteplase to assess for clinical response before pursuing endovascular therapy is not required to achieve beneficial outcomes and is not recommended

Endovascular therapy with stent retrievers is recommended over intra-arterial fibrinolysis as first-line therapy

It might be reasonable to favor conscious sedation over general anesthesia during endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke. However, the ultimate selection of anesthetic technique during endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke should be individualized based on patient risk factors, tolerance of the procedure, and other clinical characteristics

Reference:

Gross, H. and Grose, N. (2017). Emergency Neurological Life Support: Acute Ischemic Stroke. Neurocritical Care, 27(S1), pp.102-115.

Checklist: Bleed post TPA

img_1637

Reference:

Gross, H. and Grose, N. (2017). Emergency Neurological Life Support: Acute Ischemic Stroke. Neurocritical Care, 27(S1), pp.102-115.

Cormack-Lehane System

The Cormack-Lehanski system is used to grade the direct laryngoscopes view of the glottis.

Grade 1 – entire glottis is visible

Grade 2a – partial glottis view

Grade 2b – only posterior extremity of glottis (or only arytenoids) visible

Grade 3 – only epiglottis visible

Grade 4 – neither epiglottis or glottis is visible

REFERENCE:

ENLS 2017.

Manual Inline Stabilization

img_1635

Demonstration of MILS or Manual In-Line Stabilization.

– maintain head in neutral position

– assistant to intubation stands by patient as shown above, with hand on either side of head between mastoid process and the occipital

– assistant holds head steady while opposing the applied forces of airway manipulation (gently)

This technique is used for patients with suspected cervical spine injuries. A jaw-thrust maneuver should be used instead of head-tilt/chin lift maneuver. Do not use cricoid pressure. Use of video laryngoscopes may be necessary.

 

Reference:

Rajajee, V., Riggs, B. and Seder, D. (2017). Emergency Neurological Life Support: Airway, Ventilation, and Sedation. Neurocritical Care, 27(S1), pp.4-28.

Intubation in Neurocritical Care

Algorithm from ENLS

img_1634-1

 

Reference:

Rajajee, V., Riggs, B. and Seder, D. (2017). Emergency Neurological Life Support: Airway, Ventilation, and Sedation. Neurocritical Care, 27(S1), pp.4-28.

Early Goal-Directed Therapy

img_1633

 

Reference:

Criner, G., Barnette, R. and D’Alonzo, G. (2010). Critical Care Study Guide. Dordrecht: Springer.