Posterior Cerebral Artery Branches

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4 anatomic segments of the PCA:

  1. P1 segment: from tip of basilar to origin of PComm
  2. P2 segment: from Pcomm to dorsal midbrain
    1. P2A – anterior segment
    2. P2P – posterior segment
  3. P3 segment: from lateral quad cistern at origin of post temporal artery to ant limit of calcarine fissure
  4. P4 segment:  terminal cortical branches of PCA after takeoff of parieto-occipital and calcarine arteries

 

REFERENCE:

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2001 Jan;22(1):27-34. “Aneurysms of the posterior cerebral artery: classification and endovascular treatment.”   Ciceri EF1, Klucznik RP, Grossman RG, Rose JE, Mawad ME.

PCA Angiographic Anatomy Lateral

Course of the PCA and its branches in the lateral view

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  • Anterior from PComA and posterior from P1
  • thalamo-perforating arteries (p)
  • thalamogeniculate artery (G)
  • posterior choroidal arteries
  • medial (M), lateral (L), splenial artery (S)
  • parieto-occipital  arteries (PO)
  • calcarine artery (CA)
  • temporal arteries (T)
  • anastomoses with ACA and MCA (………)

Reference:

Bradač, G. B. Cerebral Angiography. Berlin: Springer, 2011. Print.

Angiogram of the Internal Carotid Artery

Common carotid angiogram, lateral view (a) and AP view (b)

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  • arrows indicate the ECA

 

Axial cut through dotted line in figure (b) above

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  • CS = carotid space (inside is ICA and JV, jugular vein and CN 9, 10, 11, 12)
  • PS = parotid space (inside ECA is posterior and retromandibular vein anterior)
  • PPS = parapharyngeal space
  • RPS = retropharyngeal space
  • PVS = perivertebral space
  • MS = masticator space

 

Petrous and cavernous portion of the ICA, lateral carotid angiogram.

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  • Petrous portion (red)
  • Cavernous portion (green)
  • Dural ring proximal to the origin of the ophthalmic artery
  • C5, C4, C3 = parts of cavernous ICA
  • C2, C1 = supraclinoid and subarachnoid ICA

 

Lateral carotid angiogram:

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  • arrow with dot = PComA
  • arrow = anterior choroidal artery
  • arrowhead = ophthalmic artery

 

The ophthalmic artery

Lateral ICA angiogram

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  • OA = ophthalmic artery
  • large arrow = bend around the optic nerve
  • small arrow = ocular complex (retina and cilial arteries)
  • arrowhead = choroid plexus
  • L = lachrymal artery
  • arrow with dot = anterior falx artery

 

Reference:

Bradač, G. B. Cerebral Angiography. Berlin: Springer, 2011. Print.

External Carotid Artery Branches on Angiogram

Common carotid angiogram, lateral view, showing the anterior course of the external carotid artery related to the internal carotid artery.

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  • superior thyroid artery (Th)
  • lingual artery (LA)
  • facial artery (FA)
  • occipital artery (large arrow)
  • ascending pharyngeal artery (small arrow)
  • internal maxillary artery (IMA)
  • middle meningeal artery (MMA)
  • middle deep temporal artery (DT)
  • superficial temporal artery (STA)

Reference:

Bradač, G. B. Cerebral Angiography. Berlin: Springer, 2011. Print.