Tag Archives: Score

IVH Score

This score is used for patients with intracerebral hemorrhages with intraventricular extension, and is not appropriate for pure intraventricular hemorrhages.


In this score, each lateral ventricle is graded as:

  • 0 = no blood or small amount of layering
  • 1 = up to 1/3 filled with blood
  • 2 = 1/3 to 2/3 filled with blood
  • 3 = mostly or completely filled with blood

3rd and 4th ventricles receive a score of:

  • 0 = for no blood
  • 1 = partially or completely filled with blood

Hydrocephalus was coded as

  • 0 = absent
  • 1 = present


The formula for calculating the IVH score is as follows:


Or simplified:  3(RV+LV) + III + IV + 3(H)


Once the IVH score has been computed, the IVH volume can be calculated using the following formula:



To make things simpler, here is a table showing the calculated IVH volume based on the IVH score.




Here are two examples of IVH scores calculated for you:



How to use the IVH Score?

With the IVH score, cutoff of 40 mL indicates poor outcome and 60 mL, mortality.

With the ICH score, cutoff is 25 mL and 30 mL respectively.

The total volume of hemorrhage can be calculated by adding the ICH volume (using the ABC/2 formula) and the IVH volume (using the ICH score).   Total volume predicts outcome better than ICH volume alone.



NOTE:  Be wary of using ICH score and IVH score to withdraw care.  Early limitation of care in ICH / IVH is a self-fulfilling prophecy which is, of course, associated with mortality.



Hallevi, H., Dar, N., Barreto, A., Morales, M., Martin-Schild, S., Abraham, A., Walker, K., Gonzales, N., Illoh, K., Grotta, J. and Savitz, S. (2009). The IVH Score: A novel tool for estimating intraventricular hemorrhage volume: Clinical and research implications*. Critical Care Medicine, 37(3), pp.969-e1.







Pediatric GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale)






Garvin, R. and Mangat, H. (2017). Emergency Neurological Life Support: Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. Neurocritical Care, 27(S1), pp.159-169.

ABCD2 Score



Table: ABCD2 Score


TIA Prognosis and Key Mx Considerations by National Stroke Association

ABCD2 Score:

  • Discharge low risk scores (ABCD 0-3)
    • outpatient work-up within 1-2 days (alternate option: admit for work-up)
      • carotid imaging (US, CTA, MRA)
      • Consider TTE; if high suspicion for cardioembolic source / bilateral infarcts, obtain TEE
      • Consider 30-d ambulatory cardiac monitor to detect cryptogenic Afib
    • smoking cessation
      • Start antiplatelet therapy:
        • ASA 81mg/day or
        • Clopidogrel 75mg/day or
        • ASA 25mg/ER dipyridamole 200mg BID
      • start high-intensity statins
        • Atorvastatin 40-80mg/d or
        • Rosuvastatin 20-40mg/day
      • *consider moderate intensity statins if >75y/o
        • Atorvastatin 10-20mg/d or
        • Rosuvastatin 5-10mg/d or
        • Simvastatin 20-40mg/d or
        • Pravastatin 40-80mg/d
      • Consider OAC or LMWH if rhythm shows atrial fibrillation – calculate CHADSVASC and HAS BLED score to guide therapy

    Admit high risk TIAs (ABCD2 scores >3)

    • Admit to hospital
    • Permissive hypertension (up to 220/120mm Hg) and gradually lower over 24-48h


Stroke.org. (2017). [online] Available at: http://www.stroke.org/sites/default/files/resources/tia-abcd2-tool.pdf?docID [Accessed 31 Jul. 2017].

Gross, Hartmut, and Noah Grose. 2017. “Emergency Neurological Life Support: Acute Ischemic Stroke”. Neurocritical Care 27 (S1): 102-115. doi:10.1007/s12028-017-0449-9.

Spinal Cord Injury – ASIA Scale





Key sensory points:

  • C2 At least one cm lateral to the occipital protuberance at the base of the skull. Alternately, it can be located at least 3 cm behind the ear.
  • C3 In the supraclavicular fossa, at the midclavicular line.
  • C4 Over the acromioclavicular joint.
  • C5 On the lateral (radial) side of the antecubital fossa just proximal to the elbow (see image below).
  • C6 On the dorsal surface of the proximal phalanx of the thumb.
  • C7 On the dorsal surface of the proximal phalanx of the middle finger.
  • C8 On the dorsal surface of the proximal phalanx of the little finger.
  • T1 On the medial (ulnar) side of the antecubital fossa, just proximal to the medial epicondyle of the humerus.
  • T2 At the apex of the axilla. T2 T1 C5 International Standards for the Classification of Spinal Cord Injury Key Sensory Points June 2008
  • T3 At the midclavicular line and the third intercostal space, found by palpating the anterior chest to locate the third rib and the corresponding third intercostal space below it.
  • T4 At the midclavicular line and the fourth intercostal space, located at the level of the nipples.
  • T5 At the midclavicular line and the fifth intercostal space, located midway between the level of the nipples and the level of the xiphisternum.
  • T6 At the midclavicular line, located at the level of the xiphisternum.
  • T7 At the midclavicular line, one quarter the distance between the level of the xiphisternum and the level of the umbilicus.
  • T8 At the midclavicular line, one half the distance between the level of the xiphisternum and the level of the umbilicus.
  • T9 At the midclavicular line, three quarters of the distance between the level of the xiphisternum and the level of the umbilicus.
  • T10 At the midclavicular line, located at the level of the umbilicus.
  • T11 At the midclavicular line, midway between the level of the umbilicus and the inguinal ligament.
  • T12 At the midclavicular line, over the midpoint of the inguinal ligament.
  • L1 Midway between the key sensory points for T12 and L2.
  • L2 On the anterior-medial thigh, at the midpoint drawn on an imaginary line connecting the midpoint of the inguinal ligament and the medial femoral condyle.
  • L3 At the medial femoral condyle above the knee.
  • L4 Over the medial malleolus.
  • L5 On the dorsum of the foot at the third metatarsal phalangeal joint.
  • T12 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 International Standards for the Classification of Spinal Cord Injury Key Sensory Points June 2008
  • S1 On the lateral aspect of the calcaneus.
  • S2 At the midpoint of the popliteal fossa.
  • S3 Over the ischial tuberosity or infragluteal fold (depending on the patient their skin can move up, down or laterally over the ischii).
  • S4/5 In the perianal area, less than one cm. lateral to the mucocutaneous junction.









Auto_Stan_Worksheet <pdf>



“ASIA Learning Center”. Asia-spinalinjury.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 23 Mar. 2017.

Manual Muscle Testing


Plus (+) and Minus (-) Grades Use of a plus (+) or minus (-) addition to a manual muscle test grade is discouraged except in three instances: Fair+, Poor+, and Poor-. Scalable gradations in other instances can be described in documentation as improved or deteriorated within a given test grade (such as Grade 4) without resorting to the use of plus or minus labels. The purpose of avoiding the use of plus or minus signs is to restrict the variety of manual muscle test grades to those that are meaningful and defendable.



Hislop, Helen J et al. Daniels And Worthingham’s Muscle Testing. 1st ed. Print.



I-TRACH Score to Predict Risk of Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation

  • Intubation in ICU (hospitalized in ICU for >24 hours prior to intubation)
  • Tachycardia (HR > 110)
  • Renal dysfunction (BUN > 25)
  • Acidemia (pH < 7.25)
  • Creatinine (>2.0)
  • decreased HCO3(<20)

*Threshold of 4 or more good Sp and Sn in predicting prolonged mechaniascal ventilation

Note: This study excluded neurological patients and therefore cannot be applied in the NSICU setting.



Clark, P. A., R. C. Inocencio, and C. J. Lettieri. “I-TRACH: Validating A Tool For Predicting Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation”. Journal of Intensive Care Medicine (2016): pages 1-7.

CAVE Score (Seizures after ICH)

The CAVE score is a tool used to quantify the risk of seizure after intracerebral hemorrhage.  Data from Helsinki ICH study and Lille Prognosis of ICH studies were analyzed retrospectively and the authors created the CAVE score to estimate the risk of late seizures after ICH.

1 point is given for each of the following:

  1. cortical involvement
  2. age < 65 years
  3. volume >10ml
  4. early seizures within 7 days  of ICH



Risk of seizures based on score:

  • CAVE score 0 = 0.6%
  • CAVE score 1 = 3.6%
  • CAVE score 2 = 9.8%
  • CAVE score 3 = 34.8%
  • CAVE score 4 = 46.2%



Haapaniemi, E. et al. “The CAVE Score For Predicting Late Seizures After Intracerebral Hemorrhage”. Stroke 45.7 (2014): 1971-1976.